Clayborn Temple and the Memphis Sanitation Strike

In 1888, the congregation of Second Presbyterian Church, decided to purchase a lot on the corner of Pontotoc and Hernando for the construction of their new building. Ground was broken for the construction on February 2, 1891, and the cornerstone of the church was laid on May 14. Sunday, January 1, 1893, the church held its dedication service. All the Presbyterian pastors of the city joined the congregation for the service.

This Romanesque Revival ecclesiastical architecture has cross gabled roofs, constructed of limestone blocks, rusticated externally with heavy timber framing members forming the roof trusses, nave ceiling with wood beams that are suspended from the roof trusses by 2 x 4 studs. It has several unique features, for instance the chancel is situated in the corner rather that the center of the sanctuary. When Second Presbyterian dedicated its new sanctuary in January 1, 1892, it was the largest church in America south of the Ohio River.

The congregation moved to East Memphis and sold the building to the African Methodist Episcopal Church in 1949. It was renamed Clayborn Temple, after AME Bishop Jim Clayborn.

Throughout the 1960s, Clayborn Temple served as the city’s staging ground for the civil rights movement, particularly the organizing headquarters of the Memphis Sanitation Strike. Memphis Labor Unions had tried for years to reform Memphis Public Works policies that included discrimination, unfair working conditions, and drastically insufficient wages.

On February 1, 1968, Echol Cole and Robert Walker were crushed to death while riding in the back of a garbage truck when the hydraulic ram was set off, thought to have been caused by a shovel that was jarred loose and crossed some electrical wires.

1,300 sanitation workers went on strike on February 12, 1968 from the Memphis City Department of Public Works, citing years the recent work-related deaths of Cole and Walker and years of poor treatment, discrimination, dangerous working conditions. Everyday from then on, the strikers marched 1.3 miles from Clayborn Temple to City Hall, carrying signs which read “I AM A MAN”. The strikers received support from local organizations such as Mallory Knights, the Invaders, and Community On the Move for Equality (C.O.M.E.), which was a group of 150 local ministers led by Reverend James Lawson.

Clayborn Temple’s ministers gave support in however way they could. Rev. Ralph Jackson, the director of the AME Minimum Salary building next door to Clayborn, gave impassioned speeches to the supporters of the strike at Clayborn. Rev. Malcolm Blackburn was considered the movement most consistent white supporter, and opened Clayborn’s offices, classrooms, and sanctuary to host the strategy meetings and community gatherings throughout the strike.

In March 1968, Reverend Lawson and C.O.M.E. invited Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. to Memphis to shine a national spotlight on their efforts in the fight for economic justice. Dr. King arrived on March 18 and addressed a crowd of over 25,000 people, the largest indoor gathering of the civil rights movement. King pledged to return to Memphis on March 22, to lead a protest through the city.

Unfortunately, a snowstorm prevented King from reaching Memphis and causing the march to be postponed until the following week. King arrived late on March 28 to find a massive crowd of over 15,000 in chaos. Lawsen and King led the march together, down Beale Street to City Hall.

After marching only half a mile, the protest became violent when some of the youth began breaking windows. King called off the demonstration and was rushed back to his hotel. As looting and rioting quickly followed, Reverend Lawson urged the protesters to return to the church. Police reacted brutally to the riot, attacking both violent and peaceful marcher with tear gas and clubs. Police followed the crowd to the church, shooting tear gas canisters into the sanctuary and beating people as they lay on the floor to get fresh air.

Mayor Henry Loeb III declared martial law and brought in 4,000 heavily armed National Guard troops to quell any further unrest. At the end of the day, 280 people had been arrested during the riot, and 60 were reported injured. Stores in the black section of town were looted and burned. The only fatality of the day was 16-year-old Larry Payne, who was shot in the stomach with a shotgun by a police officer after being suspected of looting. Despite police pressure to have a private closed-casket funeral in their home, the family held the funeral at Clayborn Temple on April 2nd, and had an open casket.

King considered not returning to Memphis, having been unaware of the division within the community, particularly of a black youth group known as the Invaders who were accused of starting the violence. He finally decided that if the nonviolent struggle for economic justice was going to succeed it would be necessary to follow through with the movement there.

King returned on April 3rd and spoke to a group of dedicated sanitation workers, delivering his “I’ve Been to the Mountaintop” address. The following evening on April 4, 1968, King was shot by James Earl Ray as he stood on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel.

Mayor Loeb would not concede to the union’s demands. It wasn’t until President Lyndon B. Johnson charged his Undersecretary of Labor, James Reynolds, with negotiating a solution and ending the strike. Negotiators finally reached a deal on April 16th, allowing the City Council to recognize the union and guaranteeing a better wage, bringing the strike to an end.

In 1979, Clayborn Temple was added to the National Register of Historic Places. The AME congregation continued to worship in Clayborn its closure in 1999 due to the congregants, similar to Second Presbyterian before it, moving away from downtown.

The church sat abandoned for years until October 2015, when a group known as Nonprofit Neighborhood Preservation Inc. purchased the building to return the church to religious, educational and community uses. Services and events are currently held there, but the group plans to have restoration completed by April 2018, in time for the 50th anniversary of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s assassination. You can visit their website at

The Variety Theatre, the Lady on Lorain

Opened on November 24, 1927, the Variety Theatre in Cleveland, Ohio was built by Sam Stecker, Meyer Fine and Abe Kramer of the Variety Amusement Company. It was designed in the Spanish Gothic by Cleveland-based architect Nicola Petti, who also designed the Cedar Lee Theatre.

The theatre was sold to Warner Brothers in 1929 who ran it until 1954. It was then run by the Community Circuit Theaters Co. until 1976 when it was purchased by Russell Koz. Koz ran the theater as a second-run movie theater until the early-1980s when it was used as a music venue, primarily rock bands.

Many known bands played there while it’s short stint as a music venue including Metallica, the Dead Kennedys, Slayer, R.E.M., and Motörhead. During Motörhead’s show on December 2, 1984 the music was so loud, it cracked the ceiling and plaster rained down onto the crowd. The last song played was the Hawkwind cover of “Motorhead” before the power was cut, ending the show. In 1986, an article was published in an issue of Spin magazine entitled “Motörhead is the Loudest Band on Earth”, claiming that the band reached a reported decibel level of 130.

That marked the beginning of the end for the theater as a judge ordered its closure in 1986 due to multiple complaints from the neighborhood. It was last used as a wrestling gym called the Cleveland Wrestleplex before closing for the last time in the late-1980s.

Since 2006, the Friends of the Historic Variety Theatre have been in the process of restoring and renovating the theater.

Lincoln Memorial Cemetery: The final resting place of Miami’s black pioneers

Lincoln Memorial Cemetery in Miami is considered by many to be Florida’s most significant predominantly African-American cemetery. Its roots date back to 1914, when Dr. Kelsey Pharr, a mortician from Boston, began a funeral business catering to Miami’s black community. Beginning in 1923, Pharr began purchasing pieces of the property up until 1937, when over 20 acres of land was consolidated under his ownership and would be known as Lincoln Memorial, “The Finest Colored Cemetery in the South.”

Many of Miami’s notable black citizens are buried here such as Dana Dorsey, Miami’s first black millionaire; H.E.S. Reeves who started the Miami Times, the city’s first black newspaper which often rallied against segregation; Arthur and Polly Mays, activists for education  in the nearby town of Goulds; and Dr. William Sawyer, Miami’s first prominent black doctor and one of the founders of Christian Hospital. His daughter, Gwen Sawyer Cherry, was the first African-American woman in the state’s legislature and a founder of the National Association of Black Women Attorneys and is also buried here in Lincoln Memorial.

When Pharr passed away in 1964, ownership of the cemetery was passed on to his long-time friend, Ellen Johnson. For years, she did her best to maintain the beauty and integrity of the cemetery up until the late-1990s when she began suffering from Alzheimer’s. As her illness progressed, it became more difficult to maintain the property and so it slowly deteriorated. 

Lincoln Memorial Cemetery continued falling into disrepair until Johnson’s death in 2015, at which point the ownership of the property was passed over to her niece, Jessica Williams. Williams has made an effort to clean up the property by working alongside the Coral Gables Museum and hiring a caretaker to live on the property to chase off anyone trespassing. 

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